The French Revolution had general causes common to all the revolutions of the West at the end of the 18th century and particular causes that explain why it was by far the most violent and the most universally significant of these revolutions. In rural areas, wild rumours and paranoia resulted in the formation of militia and an agrarian insurrection known as la Grande Peur. , The crisis led to the creation on 6 April 1793 of the Committee of Public Safety, an executive committee accountable to the convention. Dalton, Susan.  This stiffened popular resistance against state interference, especially in traditionally Catholic areas such as Normandy, Brittany and the Vendée, where only a few priests took the oath and the civilian population turned against the revolution. In the 1780s, Saint-Domingue had been France's wealthiest colony, producing more sugar than all of the British West Indies colonies put together. As internal and external threats to the Republic increased, the position worsened; dealing with this by printing assignats led to inflation and higher prices. This Enlightenment was spread among the educated classes by the many “societies of thought” that were founded at that time: masonic lodges, agricultural societies, and reading rooms. Exactly who was responsible for their organisation is disputed, but even moderates expressed sympathy for the killings, which soon spread to the provinces. France had invested heavily in the American Revolution, and King Louis XVI greatly mismanaged the country's finances. People increasingly refused to pay taxes and the annual government deficit increased from 10% of gross national product in 1789 to 64% in 1793. The Declaration of Independence Was A Template For The French. A larger population created a greater demand for food and consumer goods.  The court became the target of popular anger, especially Queen Marie-Antoinette, who was viewed as a spendthrift Austrian spy, and blamed for the dismissal of 'progressive' ministers like Jacques Necker.  The next few months were taken up with the trial of Citoyen Louis Capet, formerly Louis XVI. In December 1791, Louis made a speech to the Assembly giving foreign powers a month to disperse the émigrés or face war; it was greeted with enthusiasm by his supporters, but suspicion by his opponents. Led by Sieyès, the Third Estate demanded the credentials of all deputies be approved by the Estates-General as a whole, instead of each Estate verifying its own members; once they were approved, the built-in weighting of the Estates-General in favour of a minority would dissolve. Vichy denied the principle of equality and tried to replace the Revolutionary watchwords "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" with "Work, Family, and Fatherland." Although the spirit of ’89 is no easier to fix in words than in mortar and brick, it could be characterized as energy—a will to build a new world from the ruins of the regime that fell apart in the summer of 1789. The region of modern-day Belgium was divided between two polities: the Austrian Netherlands and Prince-Bishopric of Liège. France’s costly involvement in They ransacked the palace, killing several guards.  Even in France, there was a varying degree of agreement during this debate, English participants generally opposing the violent means that the Revolution bent itself to for its ends. By 1795, after the bad harvest of 1794 and the removal of price controls, inflation reached a level of 3500%.  The Girondins made a fatal political error by indicting Marat before the Revolutionary Tribunal for allegedly directing the September massacres; he was quickly acquitted, further isolating the Girondins from the sans-culottes. Members of the convention were evenly divided on the question of his guilt, but increasingly influenced by radicals concentrated in the Jacobin clubs and Paris Commune. The views of historians, in particular, have been characterized as falling along ideological lines, with liberal, conservative, communist, and anarchist scholars-among others- disagreeing over the significance and the major developments of the Revolution. Priests and bishops were given salaries as part of a department of government controlled by Paris, not Rome. , The Estates-General convened in the Menus-Plaisirs du Roi on 5 May 1789, near the Palace of Versailles rather than in Paris; the choice of location was interpreted as an attempt to control their debates. Under the pressure of events, splits appeared within the Montagnard faction, with violent disagreements between radical Hébertists and moderates led by Danton. These were exacerbated by Louis' refusal to accept limitations on his powers and attempts to mobilise external support to reverse it, combined with discontent over rising prices due to monetary inflation, which particularly impacted the urban working class. Many of its principles are now considered fundamental aspects of modern liberal democracy. , The war from 1778 to 1783 was financed by borrowing, and created a large French rentier class, which lived on interest they earned by holding government debt. Fist fights broke out in the streets between the two factions of women. The French Revolution French Revolution was a horrifying event that was from 1789 to 1799. , When clergy were required to swear loyalty to the Civil Constitution in November 1790, fewer than 24% did so; the result was a schism with those who refused, the 'non-juring' or 'Refractory clergy'. For some, the French Revolution was a beacon of light that gave a world dominated by aristocratic privilege and monarchical tyranny a hope of freedom. So although larger and wealthier than Britain, France struggled to service its debt.  Abbé Sieyès, a political theorist and priest elected to the Third Estate, argued that since it represented 95% of the population, the Third Estate should take precedence over the other two.  The former Brissotins now split into moderate Girondins led by Brissot, and radical Montagnards, headed by Maximilien Robespierre, Georges Danton and Jean-Paul Marat.  However, the demand for their nursing services remained strong, and after 1800 the sisters reappeared and resumed their work in hospitals and on rural estates. Prior to 1789, there have been a small number of heavily censored newspapers that needed a royal licence to operate, but the Estates-General created an enormous demand for news, and over 130 newspapers appeared by the end of the year. They were followed by 15,000 members of the National Guard under Lafayette, who tried to dissuade them, but took command when it became clear they would desert if he did not grant their request. " Women also assumed a special role in the funeral of Marat, following his murder on 13 July 1793 by Corday; as part of the funeral procession, they carried the bathtub in which he died, as well as a shirt stained with his blood. Their revolutionary ideas encouraged people to fight for their rights.  Its influence was great in the hundreds of small German states and elsewhere, where it[clarification needed] was either inspired by the French example or in reaction against it.  Widespread social distress led to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789, the first since 1614. Rapid population growth and restrictions caused by the inability to adequately finance government debt resulted in economic depression, unemployment and high food prices. As a result, the nobility and clergy could always overrule the Third Estate. , The changes in France were enormous; some were widely accepted and others bitterly contested into the late 20th century. Although rumoured to hold many prisoners, the Bastille held only seven: four forgers, two noblemen held for "immoral behaviour", and a murder suspect. French Revolution, also called Revolution of 1789, revolutionary movement that shook France between 1787 and 1799 and reached its first climax there in 1789—hence the conventional term “Revolution of 1789,” denoting the end of the ancien régime in France and serving also to distinguish that event from the later French revolutions of 1830 and 1848. ", The Revolution caused a massive shift of power from the Catholic Church to the state; although the extent of religious belief has been questioned, elimination of tolerance for religious minorities meant by 1789 being French also meant being Catholic. The views of historians, in particular, have been characterised as falling along ideological lines, with disagreement over the significance and the major developments of the Revolution.  Nevertheless, by 1799 the economy had been stabilised and important reforms made allowing steady expansion of French industry; many remained in place for much of the 19th century. Darline Gay Levy, Harriet Branson Applewhite and Mary Durham Johnson, eds.  In general, scholarship on the French Revolution initially studied the political ideas and developments of the era, but it has gradually shifted towards social history that analyses the impact of the Revolution on individual lives.  Despite high rates of desertion, this was large enough to manage multiple internal and external threats; for comparison, the combined Prussian-Austrian army was less than 90,000. The start of the revolution took place on the morning of 14th July 1789 in the state of Paris with the storming of the Bastille which is a fortress prison. "Women in Revolution 1789–1796", Hufton, Olwen. , By February 1795, France had annexed the Austrian Netherlands, established their frontier on the left bank of the Rhine and replaced the Dutch Republic with the Batavian Republic, a satellite state. When Louis XVI was executed in January 1793, his severed head was paraded around for the crowd and was met with exclamations of "Vive la République!". Thompson says that the kings had "ruled by virtue of their personal wealth, their patronage of the nobility, their disposal of ecclesiastical offices, their provincial governors (intendants) their control over the judges and magistrates, and their command of the Army. King Louis XVI was executed in 1793. 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